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covini c6w

The Covini C6W, which stands for Covini

6 Wheeler, is an Italian 2-seat, 2-door sports coupé with a removable roof section. Inspiration for the car was taken from the 1976 Tyrrell P34, which had two pairs of smaller front wheels, a principal applied to the C6W. The project was started in 1974 but abandoned shortly after, and left dormant into the 1980s due to the lack of availability of low-profile tires at time. In 2003 the project was revived and in 2004 the C6W was shown in prototype form. In 2005 a slightly revised version debuted at the Salon International de l'Auto, featuring new wheels, new roof structure and a refreshed interior, and went into limited production of 6-8 cars per year, as a result of a tie-up between PMI and Covini Engineering.

Ferruccio Covini described the advantages of having four front wheels in such a car as:

  • less risk of front tires deflating
  • less risk of aquaplaning
  • better braking
  • better grip
  • better comfort
  • better absorption of frontal impact




Covini C6W
Manufacturer Covini Engineering
Production 2004–present
Class Sports car
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
Engine(s) 4.2 L (4200 cc) V8
Transmission(s) 6-speed manual
Wheelbase 108.3 in (2750 mm)
Length 164.6 in (4180 mm)
Width 78.3 in (1990 mm)
Height 42.5 in (1080 mm)
Curb weight 2535 lb (1150 kg)
Designer Ferruccio Covini


safety ...

C6W project is pointed in the direction of new research into active and passive safety. This aspect encouraged the interest of many  companies in its development.


... and performances ...

4 steering front wheels permit to increase braking, comfort and directional stability.  Besides, the lightness of the car (less then 1200Kg), due to its essentiality, can give superb driving sensations.


... without compromises.





ENGINE: rear, longitudinal, 8 cylinder in V formation, 4 valves per cylinder, naturally aspirated, petrol direct injection Bosch-motronic.
CAPACITY: 4200 cc
MAX POWER: 440 PS (325KW) at 6400 rpm
MAX TORQUE: about 470 Nm at 2700 rpm
TRANSMISSION: rear wheel drive transaxle
GEARBOX: mechanical 6-speed + reverse. Manual and electro-hydraulic steeringwheel mounted servo
CHASSIS: steel tubular with carbon fibre reinforcements and structural parts
SUSPENSION: independent front and rear wishbones
WHEELS AND TYRES: front 15in wheels with 205/45-15 tyres; rear 20in with 345/25-20 tyres
BRAKES: front and rear vented Brembo discs. Bosch servo and electronic brake distribution
BODYWORK: glass fibre and carbon fibre
DIMENSIONS: length 4180mm; width 1990mm; height 1080mm; wheelbase 2230mm/2750mm (to foremost/middle front transaxle); front track 1540mm; rear track 1620mm ; dry weight 1150Kg
TOP SPEED: 300Kph (185mph)



covini-c6w-picturecovini c6w



Steven Chu

Steven Chu Autobiography

steve chu, nancy sutley, lisa jackson epa, carol browner, jean chu

Steven Chu

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
steven-chuMy father, Ju Chin Chu, came to the United States in 1943 to continue his education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in chemical engineering, and two years later, my mother, Ching Chen Li, joined him to study economics. A generation earlier, my mother's grandfather earned his advanced degrees in civil engineering at Cornell while his brother studied physics under Perrin at the Sorbonne before they returned to China. However, when my parents married in 1945, China was in turmoil and the possibility of returning grew increasingly remote, and they decided to begin their family in the United States. My brothers and I were born as part of a typical nomadic academic career: my older brother was born in 1946 while my father was finishing at MIT, I was born in St. Louis in 1948 while my father taught at Washington University, and my younger brother completed the family in Queens shortly after my father took a position as a professor at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute.

In 1950, we settled in Garden City, New York, a bedroom community within commuting distance of Brooklyn Polytechnic. There were only two other Chinese families in this town of 25,000, but to our parents, the determining factor was the quality of the public school system. Education in my family was not merely emphasized, it was our raison d'être. Virtually all of our aunts and uncles had Ph.D.'s in science or engineering, and it was taken for granted that the next generation of Chu's were to follow the family tradition. When the dust had settled, my two brothers and four cousins collected three MDs, four Ph.D.s and a law degree. I could manage only a single advanced degree.

In this family of accomplished scholars, I was to become the academic black sheep. I performed adequately at school, but in comparison to my older brother, who set the record for the highest cumulative average for our high school, my performance was decidedly mediocre. I studied, but not in a particularly efficient manner. Occasionally, I would focus on a particular school project and become obsessed with, what seemed to my mother, to be trivial details instead of apportioning the time I spent on school work in a more efficient way.

I approached the bulk of my schoolwork as a chore rather than an intellectual adventure. The tedium was relieved by a few courses that seem to be qualitatively different. Geometry was the first exciting course I remember. Instead of memorizing facts, we were asked to think in clear, logical steps. Beginning from a few intuitive postulates, far reaching consequences could be derived, and I took immediately to the sport of proving theorems. I also fondly remember several of my English courses where the assigned reading often led to binges where I read many books by the same author.

Despite the importance of education in our family, my life was not completely centered around school work or recreational reading. In the summer after kindergarten, a friend introduced me to the joys of building plastic model airplanes and warships. By the fourth grade, I graduated to an erector set and spent many happy hours constructing devices of unknown purpose where the main design criterion was to maximize the number of moving parts and overall size. The living room rug was frequently littered with hundreds of metal "girders" and tiny nuts and bolts surrounding half-finished structures. An understanding mother allowed me to keep the projects going for days on end. As I grew older, my interests expanded to playing with chemistry: a friend and I experimented with homemade rockets, in part funded by money my parents gave me for lunch at school. One summer, we turned our hobby into a business as we tested our neighbors' soil for acidity and missing nutrients.

I also developed an interest in sports, and played in informal games at a nearby school yard where the neighborhood children met to play touch football, baseball, basketball and occasionally, ice hockey. In the eighth grade, I taught myself tennis by reading a book, and in the following year, I joined the school team as a "second string" substitute, a position I held for the next three years. I also taught myself how to pole vault using bamboo poles obtained from the local carpet store. I was soon able to clear 8 feet, but was not good enough to make the track team.

In my senior year, I took advanced placement physics and calculus. These two courses were taught with the same spirit as my earlier geometry course. Instead of a long list of formulas to memorize, we were presented with a few basic ideas or a set of very natural assumptions. I was also blessed by two talented and dedicated teachers.

My physics teacher, Thomas Miner was particularly gifted. To this day, I remember how he introduced the subject of physics. He told us we were going to learn how to deal with very simple questions such as how a body falls due to the acceleration of gravity. Through a combination of conjecture and observations, ideas could be cast into a theory that can be tested by experiments. The small set of questions that physics could address might seem trivial compared to humanistic concerns. Despite the modest goals of physics, knowledge gained in this way would become collected wisdom through the ultimate arbitrator - experiment.

In addition to an incredibly clear and precise introduction to the subject, Mr. Miner also encouraged ambitious laboratory projects. For the better part of my last semester at Garden City High, I constructed a physical pendulum and used it to make a "precision" measurement of gravity. The years of experience building things taught me skills that were directly applicable to the construction of the pendulum. Ironically, twenty five years later, I was to develop a refined version of this measurement using laser cooled atoms in an atomic fountain interferometer.

I applied to a number of colleges in the fall of my senior year, but because of my relatively lackluster A-average in high school, I was rejected by the Ivy League schools, but was accepted at Rochester. By comparison, my older brother was attending Princeton, two cousins were in Harvard and a third was at Bryn Mawr. My younger brother seemed to have escaped the family pressure to excel in school by going to college without earning a high school diploma and by avoiding a career in science. (He nevertheless got a Ph.D. at the age of 21 followed by a law degree from Harvard and is now a managing partner of a major law firm.) As I prepared to go to college, I consoled myself that I would be an anonymous student, out of the shadow of my illustrious family.

The Rochester and Berkeley Years
At Rochester, I came with the same emotions as many of the entering freshman: everything was new, exciting and a bit overwhelming, but at least nobody had heard of my brothers and cousins. I enrolled in a two-year, introductory physics sequence that used The Feynman Lectures in Physics as the textbook. The Lectures were mesmerizing and inspirational. Feynman made physics seem so beautiful and his love of the subject is shown through each page. Learning to do the problem sets was another matter, and it was only years later that I began to appreciate what a magician he was at getting answers.

In my sophomore year, I became increasingly interested in mathematics and declared a major in both mathematics and physics. My math professors were particularly good, especially relative to the physics instructor I had that year. If it were not for the Feynman Lectures, I would have almost assuredly left physics. The pull towards mathematics was partly social: as a lowly undergraduate student, several math professors adopted me and I was invited to several faculty parties.

The obvious compromise between mathematics and physics was to become a theoretical physicist. My heroes were Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, up to the contemporary giants such as Feynman, Gell-Mann, Yang and Lee. My courses did not stress the importance of the experimental contributions, and I was led to believe that the "smartest" students became theorists while the remainder were relegated to experimental grunts. Sadly, I had forgotten Mr. Miner's first important lesson in physics.

Hoping to become a theoretical physicist, I applied to Berkeley, Stanford, Stony Brook (Yang was there!) and Princeton. I chose to go to Berkeley and entered in the fall of 1970. At that time, the number of available jobs in physics was shrinking and prospects were especially difficult for budding young theorists. I recall the faculty admonishing us about the perils of theoretical physics: unless we were going to be as good as Feynman, we would be better off in experimental physics. To the best of my knowledge, this warning had no effect on either me or my fellow students.

After I passed the qualifying exam, I was recruited by Eugene Commins. I admired his breadth of knowledge and his teaching ability but did not yet learn of his uncanny ability to bring out the best in all of his students. He was ending a series of beta decay experiments and was casting around for a new direction of research. He was getting interested in astrophysics at the time and asked me to think about proto-star formation of a closely coupled binary pair. I had spent the summer between Rochester and Berkeley at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory trying to determine the deceleration of the universe with high red-shift radio source galaxies and was drawn to astrophysics. However, in the next two months, I avoided working on the theoretical problem he gave me and instead played in the lab.

One of my "play-experiments" was motivated by my interest in classical music. I noticed that one could hear out-of-tune notes played in a very fast run by a violinist. A simple estimate suggested that the frequency accuracy, delta vtimes the duration of the note,delta tdid not satisfy the uncertainty relationshipdelta v delta t is bigger or equal to 1. In order to test the frequency sensitivity of the ear, I connected an audio oscillator to a linear gate so that a tone burst of varying duration could be produced. I then asked my fellow graduate students to match the frequency of an arbitrarily chosen tone by adjusting the knob of another audio oscillator until the notes sounded the same. Students with the best musical ears could identify the center frequency of a tone burst that eventually sounded like a "click" with an accuracy of delta v delta t is approximately 0.1.

By this time it was becoming obvious (even to me) that I would be much happier as an experimentalist and I told my advisor. He agreed and started me on a beta-decay experiment looking for "second-class currents", but after a year of building, we abandoned it to measure the Lamb shift in high-Z hydrogen-like ions. In 1974, Claude and Marie Bouchiat published their proposal to look for parity non-conserving effects in atomic transitions. The unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions suggested by Weinberg, Salam and Glashow postulated a neutral mediator of the weak force in addition to the known charged forces. Such an interaction would manifest itself as a very slight asymmetry in the absorption of left and right circularly polarized light in a magnetic dipole transition. Gene was always drawn to work that probed the most fundamental aspects of physics, and we were excited by the prospect that a table-top experiment could say something decisive about high energy physics. The experiment needed a state-of-the-art laser and my advisor knew nothing about lasers. I brashly told him not to worry; I would build it and we would be up and running in no time.

This work was tremendously exciting and the world was definitely watching us. Steven Weinberg would call my advisor every few months, hoping to hear news of a parity violating effect. Dave Jackson, a high energy theorist, and I would sometimes meet at the university swimming pool. During several of these encounters, he squinted at me and tersely asked, "Got a number yet?" The unspoken message was, "How dare you swim when there is important work to be done!"

Midway into the experiment, I told my advisor that I had suffered enough as a graduate student so he elevated me to post-doc status. Two years later, we and three graduate students published our first results. Unfortunately, we were scooped: a few months earlier, a beautiful high energy experiment at the Stanford Linear Collider had seen convincing evidence of neutral weak interactions between electrons and quarks. Nevertheless, I was offered a job as assistant professor at Berkeley in the spring of 1978.

I had spent all of my graduate and postdoctoral days at Berkeley and the faculty was concerned about inbreeding. As a solution, they hired me but also would permit me to take an immediate leave of absence before starting my own group at Berkeley. I loved Berkeley, but realized that I had a narrow view of science and saw this as a wonderful opportunity to broaden myself.

A Random Walk in Science at Bell Labs
I joined Bell Laboratories in the fall of 1978. I was one of roughly two dozen brash, young scientists that were hired within a two year period. We felt like the "Chosen Ones", with no obligation to do anything except the research we loved best. The joy and excitement of doing science permeated the halls. The cramped labs and office cubicles forced us to interact with each other and follow each others' progress. The animated discussions were common during and after seminars and at lunch and continued on the tennis courts and at parties. The atmosphere was too electric to abandon, and I never returned to Berkeley. To this day I feel guilty about it, but I think that the faculty understood my decision and have forgiven me.

Bell Labs management supplied us with funding, shielded us from extraneous bureaucracy, and urged us not to be satisfied with doing merely "good science." My department head, Peter Eisenberger, told me to spend my first six months in the library and talk to people before deciding what to do. A year later during a performance review, he chided me not to be content with anything less than "starting a new field". I responded that I would be more than happy to do that, but needed a hint as to what new field he had in mind.

I spent the first year at Bell writing a paper reviewing the current status of x-ray microscopy and started an experiment on energy transfer in ruby with Hyatt Gibbs and Sam McCall. I also began planning the experiment on the optical spectroscopy of positronium. Positronium, an atom made up of an electron and its anti-particle, was considered the most basic of all atoms, and a precise measurement of its energy levels was a long standing goal ever since the atom was discovered in 1950. The problem was that the atoms would annihilate into gamma rays after only 140x10-9 seconds, and it was impossible to produce enough of them at any given time. When I started the experiment, there were 12 published attempts to observe the optical fluorescence of the atom. People only publish failures if they have spent enough time and money so their funding agencies demand something in return.

My management thought I was ruining my career by trying an impossible experiment. After two years of no results, they strongly suggested that I abandon my quest. But I was stubborn and I had a secret weapon: his name is Allen Mills. Our strengths complemented each other beautifully, but in the end, he helped me solve the laser and metrology problems while I helped him with his positrons. We finally managed to observe a signal working with only ~4 atoms per laser pulse! Two years later and with 20 atoms per pulse, we refined our methods and obtained one of the most accurate measurements of quantum electrodynamic corrections to an atomic system.

In the fall of 1983, I became head of the Quantum Electronics Research Department and moved to another branch of Bell Labs at Holmdel, New Jersey. By then my research interests had broadened, and I was using picosecond laser techniques to look at excitons as a potential system for observing metal-insulator transitions and Anderson localization. With this apparatus, I accidentally discovered a counter-intuitive pulse-propagation effect. I was also planning to enter surface science by constructing a novel electron spectrometer based on threshold ionization of atoms that could potentially increase the energy resolution by more than an order of magnitude.

While designing the electron spectrometer, I began talking informally with Art Ashkin, a colleague at Holmdel. Art had a dream to trap atoms with light, but the management stopped the work four years ago. An important experiment had demonstrated the dipole force, but the experimenters had reached an impasse. Over the next few months, I began to realize the way to hold onto atoms with light was to first get them very cold. Laser cooling was going to make possible all of Art Ashkin's dreams plus a lot more. I promptly dropped most of my other experiments and with Leo Holberg, my new post-doc, and my technician, Alex Cable, began our laser cooling experiment. This brings me to the beginning of our work in laser cooling and trapping of atoms and the subject of my Nobel Lecture.

Stanford and the future
Life at Bell Labs, like Mary Poppins, was "practically perfect in every way". However, in 1987, I decided to leave my cozy ivory tower. Ted Hänsch had left Stanford to become co-director of the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics and I was recruited to replace him. Within a few months, I also received offers from Berkeley and Harvard, and I thought the offers were as good as they were ever going to be. My management at Bell Labs was successful in keeping me at Bell Labs for 9 years, but I wanted to be like my mentor, Gene Commins, and the urge to spawn scientific progeny was growing stronger.

Ted Geballe, a distinguished colleague of mine at Stanford who also went from Berkeley to Bell to Stanford years earlier, described our motives: "The best part of working at a university is the students. They come in fresh, enthusiastic, open to ideas, unscarred by the battles of life. They don't realize it, but they're the recipients of the best our society can offer. If a mind is ever free to be creative, that's the time. They come in believing textbooks are authoritative but eventually they figure out that textbooks and professors don't know everything, and then they start to think on their own. Then, I begin learning from them."

My students at Stanford have been extraordinary, and I have learned much from them. Much of my most important work such as fleshing out the details of polarization gradient cooling, the demonstration of the atomic fountain clock, and the development of atom interferometers and a new method of laser cooling based on Raman pulses was done at Stanford with my students as collaborators.

While still continuing in laser cooling and trapping of atoms, I have recently ventured into polymer physics and biology. In 1986, Ashkin showed that the first optical atom trap demonstrated at Bell Labs also worked on tiny glass spheres embedded in water. A year after I came to Stanford, I set about to manipulate individual DNA molecules with the so-called "optical tweezers" by attaching micron-sized polystyrene spheres to the ends of the molecule. My idea was to use two optical tweezers introduced into an optical microscope to grab the plastic handles glued to the ends of the molecule. Steve Kron, an M.D./Ph.D. student in the medical school, introduced me to molecular biology in the evenings. By 1990, we could see an image of a single, fluorescently labeled DNA molecule in real time as we stretched it out in water. My students improved upon our first attempts after they discovered our initial protocol demanded luck as a major ingredient. Using our new ability to simultaneously visualize and manipulate individual molecules of DNA, my group began to answer polymer dynamics questions that have persisted for decades. Even more thrilling, we discovered something new in the last year: identical molecules in the same initial state will choose several distinct pathways to a new equilibrium state. This "molecular individualism" was never anticipated in previous polymer dynamics theories or simulations.

I have been at Stanford for ten and a half years. The constant demands of my department and university and the ever increasing work needed to obtain funding have stolen much of my precious thinking time, and I sometimes yearn for the halcyon days of Bell Labs. Then, I think of the work my students and post-docs have done with me at Stanford and how we have grown together during this time.

From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1997, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1998

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/Nobel Lectures. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.


Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1997 



the christmas choir

the christmas choir

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Attend  The Christmas Choir on Hallmark tonight


Peter Brockman (Jason Gedrick) is a successful-but-spiritually lost accountant whose life is turned on its head when he begins volunteering at a homeless shelter run by the caring-yet-cantankerous Sister Agatha (Rhea Perlman). Amazed at the musical prowess of some of the shelter’s occupants, Peter sets out to organize them into a choir, singing holiday tunes in a local subway station. Though the singers and Peter each go through their own difficult personal trials, they slowly begin to learn to trust in each other and the power their music holds. “The Christmas Choir” is inspired by the true story of a man volunteering at a homeless shelter who saw a way to help the men living there by creating a choir from their surprising musical talents. The group, which went on to record several albums and tour the world, experienced such success that the singers where able to gain the financial security and personal confidence to leave the streets forever.

The Christmas Choir is an inspirational story of a man who works too much and one chance encounter changes his life forever. Jason Gedrick stars as an accountant who meets a homeless man and when he goes to the man’s shelter he finds out that they can sing. As he spends more time with them, he decided to start a choir with them.
Rhea Perlman plays the unconventional nun who runs the shelter and the rest of the cast are believable in their roles and boy can they sing!
This movie will put you spirit of the holiday as in doing something good for someone else! I know it made me want to do. It also makes me want to buy the choir’s CD because I loved the movie so much!
So tune in to The Christmas Choir, a movie that will make you cry in a good way tonight on Hallmark at 9p!!!

Urban Meyer

Urban Meyer

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Early life

Upon graduating from Ashtabula's Saint John High School, Meyer went on to play defensive back at the University of Cincinnati before earning his bachelor's degree in psychology in 1986. During his undergraduate studies, Meyer also became a brother of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, and met his wife at Sigma Chi's Derby Days philanthropy event [1]. He married his wife, Shelley, in 1986. The Meyers have three children: Nicole, Gigi, and Nate.

Meyer went on to earn his master's degree in sports administration at Ohio State University in 1988. Meyer was also selected in the 13th round, as a shortstop, by the Atlanta Braves in the 1982 major league baseball draft. Meyer spent two seasons playing minor league baseball in the Braves organization.[2]

 Coaching career

A two-time National Coach of the Year, Meyer has 20 years of college coaching experience, including eight as a head coach. His overall record as a head coach as of the 2007 season is 70-16 and he is 41-13 in conference play. His winning percentage (.833) ranks seventh nationally among active college coaches during the last five years.

Early coaching career

Meyer's first collegiate coaching position was a two-year stint as a graduate assistant at Ohio State (he had spent one year as a defensive backs coach at Saint Xavier High School in Cincinnati, OH). He then spent the next 13 years as an assistant—two at Illinois State, six at Colorado State, and finally five at Notre Dame. In 2001, Meyer took his first head coaching job at Bowling Green; in his first season there, he engineered one of the greatest turnaround in the NCAA, earning Mid-American Conference Coach of the Year honors in the process.

 University of Utah

After two seasons at Bowling Green, he took the job at Utah in 2003. In his first season there, Meyer was named the Mountain West Conference's Coach of the Year with a 10–2 record, the best ever for a coach's first season at Utah. He also earned honors as The Sporting News National Coach of the Year, the first Utes coach to do so. Meyer's success can be attributed to his unique offensive system. The system can best be described as an offshoot of Bill Walsh's famed West Coast Offense, which relied on short, efficient pass routes and receivers making plays after the reception. Meyer's base offense spreads three receivers and puts the quarterback in the shotgun. Then, he introduces motion in the backfield and turns it into an option attack, adding elements of the traditional run-oriented option offense.

In 2004, Meyer led the undefeated Utes to a Bowl Championship Series bid, something that had not been done by a mid-major program since the BCS' creation in 1998. In the wake of this accomplishment, both the University of Florida and the University of Notre Dame vied for his services. Meyer chose to become Florida's head coach for the 2005 season, signing a 7-year contract worth $14 million. He remained at Utah long enough to coach the team to a Fiesta Bowl win over Pittsburgh, capping off the Utes' first perfect season (12–0) since 1930.

University of Florida

Urban Meyer is interviewed after the Gators' August 30, 2008 game against Hawaii

[edit] 2005

In 2005, his first season at Florida, Meyer's Gators team finished the season 9–3 (5–3 in the Southeastern Conference). The season included an undefeated record at home and a bowl victory against Iowa in the Outback Bowl in Tampa, Florida. The Gators would have faced LSU in the SEC championship game, but they lost to South Carolina and former Florida coach Steve Spurrier in the SEC regular season finale. Instead the Gators' rival, the Georgia Bulldogs, took the SEC Eastern Division title to the championship game, ultimately defeating LSU.


In his second season at Florida, Meyer coached the Gators to a 13–1 (8–1 in the SEC) record, with the one loss coming on the road at Auburn, and SEC wins at home against South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, and LSU; on the road at Tennessee and Vanderbilt, with another win over rival Georgia. After clinching the SEC East, the Gators won the SEC Championship Game on December 2 over Arkansas by a score of 38–28. Despite the loss to Auburn, Florida was ranked 2nd in BCS standings to Ohio State, the 1st place finisher. However, the team emerged with a win over Ohio State with the score 41–14. It was the first BCS bowl berth for the Gators since the Orange Bowl that capped off the 2001 campaign, and Florida's first national championship appearance and victory since winning the title in 1996.

Meyer has so far been known for winning big games. In addition to his overall 5–1 record in bowl games (as of 2008), at Florida, Meyer has a 10–1 (as of November 9, 2008) record against three of the Gators' biggest opponents—Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida State—and a 14–2 home record. Despite this success, Meyer is just 5-5 against SEC Western Division teams since taking over at Florida.

Meyer signed a 6-year contract extension with the Gators on June 7, 2007. The contract pays an average of $3.2-million per year, making him the fourth-highest paid coach in college football—behind only Nick Saban, Bob Stoops, and Charlie Weis. [3]


Meyer's Gators managed a 9–3 regular season record in 2007, including blowout wins over rivals Tennessee and FSU. Quarterback Tim Tebow also became Coach Meyer's first Heisman Trophy winner. The team led the conference in scoring,[4] but struggles on defense made it difficult for the Gators to reach a BCS bowl game.[5] The Gators lost the Capital One Bowl to Michigan 41-35 on January 1, 2008. Meyer served as a pre-game and halftime analyst for the 2008 BCS National Championship Game.

Head coaching record

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl Coaches# AP°
Bowling Green Falcons (Mid-American Conference) (2001–2002)
2001 Bowling Green 8–3 5–3 2  
2002 Bowling Green 9–3 6–2 3  
Bowling Green: 17–6 11–5  
Utah Utes (Mountain West Conference) (2003–2004)
2003 Utah 10–2 6–1 1 W Liberty 21 21
2004 Utah 12–0 7–0 1 W Fiesta † 5 4
Utah: 22–2 13–1  
Florida Gators (Southeastern Conference) (2005–present)
2005 Florida 9–3 5–3 2 - East W Outback 16 12
2006 Florida 13–1 8–1 1 - East W BCS NCG † 1 1
2007 Florida 9–4 5–3 3 - East L Capital One 16 13
2008 Florida 12-1 8-1 1 - East      
Florida: 43–9 26–8  
Total: 82–17  
      National Championship         Conference Title         Conference Division Title
Indicates BCS bowl game. #Rankings from final Coaches Poll of the season.
°Rankings from final AP Poll of the season.


  • 2001 Mid-American Conference Coach of the Year
  • 2003 The Sporting News National Coach of the Year
  • 2003 Mountain West Conference Coach of the Year
  • 2004 The Home Depot Coach of the Year Award
  • 2004 George Munger Award for the Collegiate Coach of the Year presented by the Maxwell Club
  • 2004 Eddie Robinson Coach of the Year (presented by the Football Writers Association of America)
  • 2004 Pro Football Weekly National Coach of the Year
  • 2004 Woody Hayes Trophy Award (Presented by the Columbus Touchdown Club)
  • 2004 Victor Award
  • 2004 Mountain West Conference Coach of the Year


Married to the former Shelley Mather. Has three children Nicole (17), Gigi (14), Nathan (9).


  1. ^>
  2. ^ Player Bio: Urban Meyer :: Football
  3. ^ "Donovan welcomed back with college basketball's highest salary". Palm Beach Post (2007-06-07). Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  4. ^ "2007 SEC Football Leaders". Southeastern Conference. Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  5. ^ "Gators to alter style of play with loss of nine defensive starters". (2007-08-07). Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  • "BGSU Football History". 2006 Bowling Green Football Media Guide. Bowling Green State University Athletics. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  • "Ute Record Book". 2006 Utah Football Media Guide. University of Utah Athletics. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  • "Head Football Coach Urban Meyer". 2006 Gator Football Media Guide. University of Florida Athletics. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  • "2005-2006 Athletic Year in Review". 2006 Gator Football Media Guide. University of Florida Athletics. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.

Bowman's capsule

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bowman s capsule



The Bowman's capsule (other names: capsula glomeruli, glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule (i.e., glomerular filtrate) and further processed along the nephron to form urine. This process is known as ultrafiltration.


Outside the capsule, there are two "poles":

  • The vascular pole is the side with the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole.
  • the urinary pole is the side with the proximal convoluted tubule.

Inside the capsule, the layers are as follows, from outside to inside:

See glomerulusfor more details.

parietal layer A single layer of simple squamous epithelium. Does not function in filtration.
Bowman's space (or "urinary space", or "capsular space") Between the visceral and parietal layers, into which the filtrate enters after passing through the podocytes' filtration slits.[1]
visceral layer Lies just beneath the thickened glomerular basement membrane and is made of podocytes. Beneath the visceral layer lie the glomerular capillaries.
FIltration Barrier The filtration barrier is composed of the fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries, the fused basal lamina of the endothelial cells and podocytes, and the filtration slits of the podocytes. The barrier permits the passage of water, ions, and small molecules from the bloodstream into the Bowman's space. The barrier prevents the passage of large and/or negatively charged proteins (such as albumin). The basal lamina of the filtration barrier is composed of three layers. The first layer is the lamina rara externa, adjacent to the podocyte processes. The second layer is the lamina rara interna, adjacent to the endothelial cells. The final layer is the lamina densa which is a darker central zone of the basal lamina. It consists of the meshwork of type IV collagen and laminin which act as a selective macromolecular filter.


The process of filtration of the blood in the Bowman's capsule is ultrafiltration (or glomerular filtration), and the normal rate of filtration is 125 ml/min, equivalent to ten times the blood volume daily.

Any proteins under roughly 30 kilodaltons can pass freely through the membrane, although there is some extra hindrance for negatively charged molecules due to the negative charge of the basement membrane and the podocytes.

Any small molecules such as water, glucose, salt (NaCl), amino acids, and urea pass freely into Bowman's space, but cells, platelets and large proteins do not.

As a result, the filtrate leaving the Bowman's capsule is very similar to blood plasma in composition as it passes into the proximal convoluted tubule.

 Clinical significance

Measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a diagnostic test of kidney function.

A decreased GFR may be a sign of renal failure.

A number of diseases can result in various problems within the glomerulus. Examples include acute proliferative (endocapillary) glomerulonephritis, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangiocapillary (membranoproliferative) glomerulonephritis, acute crescentic glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulonephritis, and diabetic glomerulosclerosis.


Bowman's capsule is named after Sir William Bowman (1816-1892), a British surgeon and anatomist.

Together with the glomerulus it is known as a renal corpuscle, or a Malpighian corpuscle, named after Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), an Italian physician and biologist. This name is not used widely anymore, probably to avoid confusion with a Malpighian corpuscle in the spleen.

 See also

  • mesangium

Additional images


  1. ^ Histology at BU 22401lba

External links

  • Histology at BU 16006loa
  • Diagram at
Retrieved from ""


savannah cat

savannah cat for sale, savannah cats, savannah cats for sale, savanna cat, savannah



Bengal breeder Judee Frank has managed to crossbreed a Serval and domestic cat, producing the first Savannah (named Savannah) on April 7, 1986.[1] Judee Frank’s Savannah attracted the interest of Patrick Kelley, who had been interested in exotic looking domestic cats for many years and purchased one of Savannah's kittens in 1989. Patrick Kelley’s enthusiasm and vision for establishing a new domestic breed based on the Serval / domestic Cat cross prompted him to research what steps would be needed to be recognized and accepted by an official feline registry. Armed with that information, obtained from Leslie Bowners at TICA (The International Cat Association), Patrick approached numerous breeders of Servals and encouraged them to attempt the development of this new breed. Initially, no breeders were interested.[2] But Patrick persisted and finally convinced one breeder, Joyce Sroufe, to join him in founding the Savannah breed.[3]

In 1996, Patrick Kelley and Joyce Sroufe wrote the original version of the Savannah breed standard, and presented it to the TICA board. However, in that same year, TICA had placed a moratorium on new breeds. It was not until 2000 that the standard, with input from other breeders, was accepted by TICA in a narrow 7-to-6 vote. At that same time, the Savannah International Member & Breeder Association (SIMBA) was formed, and reported just over 100 registered savannahs.[4] As of 2001, the population of Savannahs was estimated to be over 200.[5]

Physical features

Close-up showing ocelli and tear-stain markings on a 4-month old F1 savannah.

Savannahs are considered one of the larger breeds of domesticated cats. Their tall and slim build gives Savannahs the appearance of greater size than their actual weight.[6] F1 hybrid and F2 hybrids are usually the largest, due to the stronger genetic influence of the African Serval ancestor. Male Savannahs tend to be larger than females. Early generation Savannahs may weigh 10 to 25 lbs. Size is also very dependent on generation and sex, with F1 male cats usually being the largest. Later generation Savannahs are usually between 8-17 lbs. Because of the random factors in Savannah hybrid genetics, there can be significant variation in size, even in one litter. Some breeders report Savannahs in excess of 30 pounds, with at least one breeder claiming an over 40 pound male.[citation needed]

The coat of a Savannah depends a lot on the breed of cat used for the domestic cross. Early generations have some form of dark spotting on a lighter coat, and many breeders employ "wild" looking spotted breeds such as the Bengal and Egyptian Mau for the cross to help preserve these markings in later generations. The International Cat Association (TICA) breed standard calls for brown spotted tabby (cool to warm brown, tan or gold with black or dark brown spots), silver spotted tabby (silver coat with black or dark grey spots), black (black with black spots), and black smoke (black tipped silver with black spots) only.[7] In addition, the Savannah can come in nonstandard variations such as the classic or marble patterns, snow coloration (Point (coat color)), and blue or other diluted colors derived from domestic sources of cat coat genetics.

The overall look of an individual Savannah depends greatly on generation, with higher-percentage Savannah cats often having a more "wild" look. The domestic breed that is used will influence appearance as well. The domestic out-crosses for the Savannah breed that are permissible in The International Cat Association (TICA) are the Egyptian Mau, the Ocicat, the Oriental Shorthair, and the Domestic Shorthair. In addition, some Savannah breeders use "non-permissible" breeds or mixes such as Bengal (for size and vivid spotting) and Maine Coon cats (for size) for the domestic parentage. A Savannah's wild look is often due to the presence of many distinguishing Serval characteristics. Most prominent of these include the various color markings and tall, erect ears. The bodies of Savannahs are long and leggy—when a Savannah is standing, their hind-end is often higher than their shoulders. The head is taller than wide, and they have a long slender neck.[4] The backs of the ears have ocelli, a central light band bordered by black, dark grey or brown, giving an eye-like effect. The short tail has black rings, with a solid black tip. The eyes are blue as a kitten (as in other cats), and may be green, brown, gold or a blended shade as an adult. The eyes have a "boomerang" shape, with a slightly hooded brow to protect them from harsh sunlight. Black or dark "tear-streak" or "cheetah tear" markings run from the corner of the eyes down the sides of the nose to the whiskers, much like a cheetah's. These tear marks also help reduce glare from sunlight, which aids the Savannah's vision during hunting.

Most F1 generation Savannahs will possess many or all of these traits, while their presence often diminishes in later generations. Being a hybridized-breed of cats, appearance can vary far more than cat owners may be used to. Photos of different generations can be found at the Savannah Cat Club and SIMBAwebsites.

Reproduction and genetics

As Savannahs are produced by crossbreeding Servals and domestic cats, each generation of Savannahs is marked with a filial number. For example, the cats produced directly from a Serval/domestic Cat cross are the F1 generation, and they are typically 50% serval (although if a F1 Savannah is used as the domestic parent, the percentage of Serval blood can jump to 75%). The F2 generation, which has a Serval grandparent and is the offspring of the F1 generation, is 25% Serval. The F3 generation has a Serval great grandparent, and is 12.5% Serval. Earlier generation Savannahs are typically more expensive to purchase due to scarcity. A Savannah/Savannah cross may also be referred to by breeders as SVxSV (SV is the TICA code for the Savannah breed), in addition to the filial number.

Being Hybrids, Savannahs typically exhibit some characteristics of hybrid inviability. Because the male Savannah is the heterozygous sex, they are most commonly affected, in accordance with Haldane's rule. Male Savannahs are typically larger in size and sterile until the F5 generation or so, although the females are fertile from the F1 generation and so on. As a result, females are usually more expensive than males, especially when sold for the explicit purpose of breeding.


Savannahs have been described as friendly, assertive, active, playful and interested in dogs and children.[8] They are commonly compared to dogs in their loyalty, and they will follow their owners around the house like a canine. They can also be trained to walk on a leash like a dog, and even fetch.[9]

Savannahs often greet people with head-butts, or an unexpected pounce. Some Savannahs are reported as being very social and friendly with new people, and other cats and dogs, while others may run and hide or revert to hissing and growling when seeing a stranger. Exposure to other people and pets is most likely the key factor in sociability as the Savannah kitten grows up.

Owners of Savannahs say that they are very impressed with the intelligence of this breed of cat.[citation needed] An often noted trait of the Savannah is its jumpingability. Savannahs are known to jump up on top of doors, refrigerators and high cabinets. Some Savannahs can leap about 8 feet (2.5 m) high from a standing position. Savannahs are very inquisitive, and have been known to get into all sorts of things; they often learn how to open doors and cupboards, and anyone buying a Savannah will likely need to take special precautions to prevent the cat from getting into things.

Water isn't a fear of the Savannah cat; many will play or even immerse themselves in water.[8] Presenting a water bowl to a Savannah may also prove a challenge, as some will promptly begin to "bat" all the water out of the bowl until it is empty, using their front paws.

Vocally, Savannahs may either chirp like their Serval father, meow like their domestic mother, or do both, sometimes producing sounds which are a mixture of the two. Chirping, when present, is observed more often in earlier generations. Savannahs may also "hiss"—a Serval-like hiss is quite different from a domestic cat's hiss, sounding more like a very loud snake hiss, and can be alarming to humans not acquainted to such a sound coming from a cat. Hissing, and even aggressive behavior which involves hissing, is more frequent in F1 or occasionally F2 generations, and may subside or disappear as the cat is socialized.

Health considerations

Savannahs are considered to have hybrid vigor. Different individuals contain different amounts of Serval and of varied domestic cat breeds, and there are currently no established Savannah breed-specific health issues.

Some veterinarians have noted that Servals have smaller livers relative to their body size than domestic cats, and some Savannahs inherit this. For this reason, care is advised in prescribing some medications. Lower doses per weight of the cat may be necessary. In addition, the blood values of Savannahs may vary from the typical domestic cat, due to the serval genes.

There is much anecdotal evidence that Savannahs and other domestic hybrids (such as Bengals) do not respond well to anesthesia containing Ketamine. Many Savannah breeders request in their contracts that Ketamine not be used for surgeries.

Some (but not all) experienced Savannah breeders believe strongly that modified live vaccines should not be used on Savannahs, that only killed virus vaccines should be used.

Some breeders state that Savannah cats have no known special care or food requirements, while others recommend a very high quality diet with no grains or by-products. Some recommend a partial or complete raw feeding/raw food diet with at least 32% protein and no by-products. Servals often require calcium and other supplements (unless fed a natural, complete and raw diet), especially when growing, and some Savannah breeders recommend supplements as well, especially for the earlier generations. Others consider it unnecessary, or even harmful.[4] Issues of Savannah diet are not without controversy, and again, it is best to seek the advice of a veterinarian or exotic cat specialist before feeding a Savannah cat any non-standard diet.

Ownership laws

Laws governing ownership of Savannah cats in the United States vary according to state. Most notably, hybrid cats—defined as a domestic/wild species cross—such as the Savannah are illegal to own as pets in the state of New York as of 2005 [10] The majority of states, however, follow federal and United States Department of Agriculture code which define wild/domesticated hybrid crosses as domesticated.

Other states known to have laws restricting hybrid cat ownership include but are not necessarily limited to: Alaska [11], Iowa, Hawaii, Massachusetts, and Georgia. Savannahs more than five generations from the Serval are allowed to be owned in New York state, but not in the city of New York.

The Australian Federal government was investigating whether to ban the Savannah cat, as it could potentially threaten the country's native wildlife.[12] A government report into the proposed importation of the cats has warned the hybrid breed may introduce enhanced hunting skills into feral cat populations and put keystone native species at risk. The report states that the Savannah cats are not worth the risk.[13][14] It is worth noting that no specific evidence on Savannah behavior was presented in the Risk Assessment report, the report assumed danger without substantiation from any reliable source. [15]


  1. ^ Wood, Suzi (November 1986). "Untitled". LIOC Endangered Species Conservation Federation Newsletter 30 (6): 15, 
  2. ^ "Simba News Letter Pg 9 and 10". Retrieved on 2006-12-03.
  3. ^ "Savannah Cat Breed Section/ Savannah Breed History". Retrieved on 2006-12-03.
  4. ^ a b c "Petworld: Volume 6, Issue 6". Retrieved on 2006-11-24.
  5. ^ "CAES & CIA Magazine". Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  6. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Savannah Cats". Retrieved on 2006-11-24.
  7. ^ "TICA Breed Standard for Savannahs (SV)". Retrieved on 2006-11-24.
  8. ^ a b "Meet the breeds". Kittens USA (Fancy Publications) 10: 64–69. 2006-2007. 
  9. ^ "Inside Chicago: Cats Who Act Like Dogs". Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  10. ^ "What's Up, Pussycat? Whoa!". Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  11. ^
  12. ^ 16/06/2008 "Govt may prohibit supercat breed: Wong"
  13. ^ Cooper, D. 23/6/08 "Savannah cats not worth risk, says report"
  14. ^ The Age, "Savannah cats banned from Australia", 3 August 2008 [1]
  15. ^ "savannah-cat-assessment-report", [24 July 2008][2]

Savannah cats banned from Australia

Tim Tebow

Tim Tebow

Tim Tebow - Florida Gators Tim TebowFull Name : Tim Tebow
Born : August 14, 1987
Hometown : St. Augustine, FL
Height : 6 foot 3
Weight : 235 lbs.

High School : Nease HS
College : Florida Gators
Position : Quarterback

Timothy Richard Tebow (born August 14, 1987) is an American football quarterback for the Florida Gators.

2007 - 2008 The best of Tim Tebow: season highlights 

He played quarterback for Nease High School in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, where he became a Division I-A recruit and ranked among the top quarterback prospects in the nation. He chose to attend the University of Florida. A dual-threat quarterback who can run and pass, he was used in his freshman season largely as a change-of-pace to the Gators' more traditional pocket passer, Chris Leak. His contribution as a key reserve helped the Gators win college football's national championship game for the first time since 1996.

A sophomore in 2007, he became the Gators' starting quarterback and has broken Southeastern Conference records for rushing touchdowns and touchdowns accounted for. He also became the first NCAA player to rush and pass for 20 touchdowns in a season. His performance has made him among the polled favorites for the 2007 Heisman trophy

The fifth child of Bob and Pam Tebow, both of whom are University of Florida graduates, Tim was born on August 14, 1987 in the Philippines, where his parents were serving as Christian missionaries.

All of the Tebow children were homeschooled by their mother who also worked to instill the family’s deep religious beliefs along the way. In 1996, legislation was passed in Florida allowing homeschooled students to compete in local high school sporting events. The law specifies that homeschool students may participate on the team of the local school in the county and school district in which they live. The Tebows lived in Duval County and Tim played linebacker and tight end for Trinity Christian in Jacksonville for one season, but his dream was to play quarterback. Trinity did not pass the ball much and Tim didn’t want to hand it off every play, so he began to explore his options. Nease liked to throw the ball and Coach Craig Howard was known for his passing offense so Tim and his mother moved in to an apartment down the street from the Nease High School in St. Johns County. With the rest of his family living on a farm in Jacksonville, Tim began playing quarterback for Nease High School in Ponte Vedra Beach and his performance soon began to turn some heads which even led to a minor controversy over him being a homeschooled student.

As a junior, Tebow’s stock rose as he became a high profile, highly recruited major college quarterback prospect. The 6’3”, 225 lb (1.91 m, 102 kg) quarterback continued to impress during his senior season, leading the Nease Panthers to a state title, earning All-State honors, was named Florida's Mr. Football and a Parade All-American. Tebow finished his high school career with 9,810 passing yards, 3,186 rushing yards, 95 passing touchdowns and 62 rushing touchdowns. He played in the U.S. Army All-American Bowl Game in San Antonio, Texas which features the top 78 senior high school football players in the nation and is shown nationally on NBC television.

Despite having parental and sibling ties to the University of Florida, he remained open-minded during the recruiting process and became very close to Alabama coach Mike Shula. However, after careful consideration and much deliberation, he decided to play for the team he felt best suited his skills and style of play. Tebow chose to play for Urban Meyer's Florida Gators, who employ a similar “spread option” offense that he excelled in at Nease High School.

Tebow was considered one of the nation’s top recruits and was the subject of an ESPN “Faces in Sports” documentary. The segment was titled "Tim Tebow: The Chosen One", and focused on Tim’s homeschool controversy and missionary work in the Philippines, as well as his exploits on the field of play and the college recruiting process. Tim Tebow was also featured in Sports Illustrated on the “Faces in the Crowd” page. On January 7, 2007, Tebow was featured prominently in an ESPN “Outside The Lines” feature on homeschooled athletes seeking equal access to high school athletics in other states. In fact, his popularity inspired "equal access" supporters in Alabama to name their bill in the Alabama Legislature "The Tim Tebow Bill". The bill, which is pending in the Alabama Legislature, will allow Alabama home school athletes to play for their local high school teams just as Tebow did in Florida.

In Florida's 2006 "Orange and Blue" Spring scrimmage, he completed 15 of 21 pass attempts for 197 yards and one touchdown. After the game, some Gator fans suggested that Tebow could be named the starting quarterback over then starter Chris Leak. Coach Urban Meyer later said that despite Tebow's impressive performance, Leak would remain the starting quarterback. Prior to the 2006 season, Tebow was listed by Sports Illustrated as college football's future top mobile quarterback.

Coming off the bench behind senior quarterback Chris Leak, Tebow made his college debut in a goal line situation against Southern Miss, rushing for a touchdown on a designed quarterback scramble. He led the team in rushing in the next game, against UCF, and finished 2006 as the Gators' second-highest season rushing leader.

He made his SEC debut against the Tennessee Volunteers on September 16, 2006. His performance included a ten-yard run on his first carry and converting a critical fourth down near the end of the game.

Tebow's biggest game in the season came against the LSU Tigers on October 7, 2006, where he accounted for all three of the Gators' touchdowns, passing for two and rushing for another. Tebow had a one-yard run on the goal line for his first score, a one-yard "jump pass" to tight end Tate Casey, in which he jumped in the air and double-pumped his arm before releasing the ball, and a 35-yard play-action pass to wide receiver Louis Murphy.

Tebow played a role in the Gators' victory in the 2007 BCS National Championship Game against Ohio State. He threw for one touchdown and rushed for another, finishing with 39 rushing yards.

Tebow was named as one of the "Breakout Players of 2007" for college football by Sporting News, and will start at quarterback for the Florida Gators in the 2007 season. The Gators' offense in 2007 should be similar to what Urban Meyer used at Utah, since Meyer views Tebow as “very similar to Alex Smith.” Smith was quarterback for Meyer's last team at Utah in 2004, which became the first team from outside the BCS conferences to play in and win a BCS bowl game, and went on to be the top overall pick in the 2005 NFL Draft.

There were some questions about how he would perform as a full time passer, but he opened the year 13-of-17 for 300 yards and 3 touchdowns in his starting debut against Western Kentucky University. For the season, Tebow is currently 217-317 for 3132 yards and 29 touchdowns passing—second in the nation with 177.8 passing efficiency—with an additional 194 rushes for 838 yards and 22 touchdowns on the ground through 11 games.

In week 4 of the season, when the Gators faced Ole Miss in an SEC match-up, Tebow broke the school record for rushing yards by a quarterback in one game, with 166 yards.

On November 3, against Vanderbilt, Tebow rushed for 2 touchdowns to break the all-time SEC quarterback TD record in a single season.

On November 10, Tebow broke the school record for rushing touchdowns in a season and set a career high with 5 rushing touchdowns in a game versus the South Carolina Gamecocks. This brought his season total to 19 rushing touchdowns, which tied him for the SEC record for any player in a season (shared with Shaun Alexander, Garrison Hearst, and LaBrandon Toefield). He also broke Danny Wuerffel's conference record for touchdowns accounted for in a single season with 42.

After scoring his 20th rushing touchdown against Florida Atlantic on November 17 and setting a new conference record for rushing touchdowns, he also became the only person ever in NCAA history to score 20 touchdowns rushing and 20 touchdowns passing in the same season

Tim Tebow Continues to Make History

CSTV joined Tim and the Tebow family for the Heisman hoopla.

Heisman Trophy
Heisman Trophy On December 8, 2007, Tim Tebow was awarded the Heisman Trophy, finishing ahead of Arkansas's Darren McFadden, Hawaii's Colt Brennan, and Missouri's Chase Daniel. He is the only underclassman to have ever won the Heisman Trophy. He garnered 462 first place votes and 1957 points, 254 points ahead of runner-up Arkansas running back Darren McFadden. He finished the regular season as the only player in FBS history to rush and pass for at least 20 touchdowns in both categories in the same season. He had 32 passing touchdowns, and 23 rushing touchdowns. Tebow's rushing TD total in the 2007 season is the most recorded for any position in SEC history. The total also set the record for most rushing touchdowns by a quarterback in FBS history. Tebow became the third UF player to win the Heisman Trophy, joining Steve Spurrier and Danny Wuerffel. Coincidentally, all three of Florida's Heisman trophy winning quarterbacks were sons of ministers?

Tim Tebow - Story & 2007 Heisman Trophy Speech

This is a video I compiled of Tim Tebow's miraculous story, the son of missionaries in the Philippines whose mother almost died and Tim almost died several times. I also included the ESPN coverage of the ceremony and acceptance speech. Everyone loves this remarkable young man! Go Gators!

Before the 2007 season had even come to a close, Florida coach Urban Meyer stated that he would likely use 2 quarterbacks during the 2008 season to take some of the workload off of Tebow's shoulders. Tebow led the Gators in rushing in 2007 but also had to play through a bruised shoulder and broken non-throwing hand

Can Tim Tebow Sing

2006 Season
SEC All-Freshman Team
SEC Freshman of the Week

2007 Season
Walter Camp Foundation National Offensive Player of the Week
Southeastern Conference Offensive Player of the Week, three times
Davey O'Brien Award winner
Heisman Trophy winner.
Maxwell Award winner
Walter Camp Award finalist
ESPN The Magazine Academic All-American football team
Manning Award finalist National Offensive Player of the Year SEC Offensive Player of the Year First Team All-SEC
First Team All-SEC Coaches Conference football team
Associated Press SEC Offensive Player of the Year
Associated Press All-SEC First Team
Associated Press Player of the Year
Listed as an All-American by: Associated Press, Football Writers Association of America, Walter Camp Football Foundation, Sporting News, Sports Illustrated, ESPN, CBS Sports, College Football News,, and James E. Sullivan Award, awarded to the Nations top amateur athlete
Roy F. Kramer SEC Male Athlete of the Year . Third Florida Gator to win this award, Danny Wuerffel (won twice) and Ryan Lochte. ESPY for Best Male College Athlete

Bowl Games
2007 BCS Championship - Florida 41, OSU 14
2008 Capital One Bowl - Florida 35, Michigan 41

Gators vs Hawaii Rainbow Warriors NCAA football

View more from the GatorHighlights Tim Tebow Update of the Day- Hawaii vs Florida!!

View more from the Tebowettes
Tim Tebow News :
Tim Tebow Related News :
Sooners Likely Punch Ticket To Miami In Rout Of Missouri
City, MO -- (Sports Network) - Sam Bradford has Oklahoma headed to the national title game and the Florida Gators should be waiting for the Sooners in Miami. Bradford threw for 384 yards and two touchdowns as fourth-ranked Oklahoma blew past No. 19

Sooners likely punch ticket to Miami in rout of Missouri
Kansas City, MO (Sports Network) - Sam Bradford has Oklahoma headed to the national title game and the Florida Gators should be waiting for the Sooners in Miami. Bradford threw for 384 yards and two touchdowns as fourth-ranked Oklahoma blew past No. 19

Alabama and Florida duke it out for SEC title
the Georgia Dome on Saturday afternoon, as the top-ranked Alabama Crimson Tide will take on the second- ranked Florida Gators for the SEC Championship and a trip to the national title game. Alabama is 12-0 for the third time in school history, and the

A Conversation With Rep. Cliff Stearns
at CR 318 and CR 225 1 hr ago Winning floats in Ocala Christmas Parade 1 hr ago Florida Gators win SEC Championship 4 hrs ago Charities running low on supplies, donations 16 hrs ago North Marion loses heartbreaker to Pasco High 16 hrs ago Traveling

Reminiscing About WWII
at CR 318 and CR 225 1 hr ago Winning floats in Ocala Christmas Parade 1 hr ago Florida Gators win SEC Championship 4 hrs ago Charities running low on supplies, donations 16 hrs ago North Marion loses heartbreaker to Pasco High 16 hrs ago Traveling

Sooners Likely Punch Ticket To Miami In Rout Of Missouri
City, MO -- (Sports Network) - Sam Bradford has Oklahoma headed to the national title game and the Florida Gators should be waiting for the Sooners in Miami. Bradford threw for 384 yards and two touchdowns as fourth-ranked Oklahoma blew past No. 19

Florida topples top-ranked Tide for SEC title
to win the SEC Championship game Saturday night at the Georgia Dome in Atlanta. ATLANTA Everybody knew the Florida Gators were fast. Theyre quite tough, too. In an anticipated Southeastern Conference football title game that lived up to the hype, No. 2

Recap: Oklahoma vs. Missouri
Sam Bradford has Oklahoma headed to the national title game and the Florida Gators should be waiting for the Sooners in Miami. Bradford threw for 384 yards and two touchdowns as fourth-ranked Oklahoma blew past No. 19 Missouri, 62-21, in the Big 12

Sooners Likely Punch Ticket To Miami In Rout Of Missouri
City, MO -- (Sports Network) - Sam Bradford has Oklahoma headed to the national title game and the Florida Gators should be waiting for the Sooners in Miami. Bradford threw for 384 yards and two touchdowns as fourth-ranked Oklahoma blew past No. 19

Gators rally to win SEC title
ATLANTA - If the sound of the current typically comes before the actual crash of the waves, the Florida Gators couldn't help but hear it all week. How the stakes of a national championship semifinal would create a fourth-quarter classic instead of

Eric Shinseki

U.S. Army General Eric Shinseki "graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1965 with a bachelor's degree. He earned an M.A. in English literature from Duke University. He has also taken the Armor Officer Advanced Course and attended the Army Command and General Staff College and the National War College. He received two Purple Hearts and four Bronze Star Medals for his service in Vietnam. He then served for more than ten years in Europe. Shinseki was named a lieutenant general and deputy chief of staff for operations and planning in 1996. The following year, he was promoted to general, later being made commander of the U.S. Army in Europe, the allied land forces in Central Europe, and the NATO force in Bosnia. In 1998 he was named vice chief of staff of the army, and chief of staff in 1999."

"He came into office in June 1999 with a clear vision for "transformation" and talked passionately about the army's need to adjust from thinking about traditional enemies to what he called "complicators", including both terrorists and the then little-known phrase "weapons of mass destruction". Gen Shinseki might thus have relished the arrival of a Republican team equally committed to change." [1]

"The general wanted a new kind of army, one that could combine the adaptability of light infantry and the power of heavily mechanised forces. His new bosses had other ideas. "They had pre-decided what transformation meant," said one Pentagon source. "It meant more from space, more from air and it didn't involve the army much. That was the essence of the[ir] conflict."
  • On August 1, 2003, Donald Rumsfeld replaced General Shinseki as Army Chief of Staff with General Peter J. Schoomaker after Shineski "questioned the cakewalk scenario, and told Congress (that February) that we would need several hundred thousand soldiers in Iraq to put an end to the violence against our troops and against each other." [2]

Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz called his estimate "wildly off the mark" and said, "I am reasonably certain that they will greet us as liberators, and that will help us to keep requirements down." By July 2003, "many experts say that the worst of the chaos in Iraq could have been contained if there had been enough troops on the ground from the beginning. There's a growing consensus that something close to what Shinseki suggested might be necessary to turn the situation around." [3]

"Something on the order of several hundred thousand soldiers are probably, you know, a figure that would be required," General Shinseki told members of the Senate Armed Services Committee today. "We're talking about post-hostilities control over a piece of geography that's fairly significant, with the kinds of ethnic tensions that could lead to other problems." [4]

General Shinseki continued, "It takes a significant ground force presence to maintain a safe and secure environment, to ensure that people are fed, that water is disturbed, all the normal responsibilities that go along with administering a situation like this."
General Shinseki made clear that he was providing only his personal assessment of postwar needs, and that the final decision would be made by the commander of American forces in the region, Gen. Tommy R. Franks.

Mr Rumsfeld publicly repudiated him, saying he was "far off the mark".In semi-private, the Pentagon's civilian leadership was far more scathing. A "senior administration official" told the Village Voice newspaper that Gen Shinseki's remark was "bullshit from a Clintonite enamoured of using the army for peacekeeping and not winning wars". [5]

Then the general said it again. "It could be as high as several hundred thousand," he told another committee.


  • 1 Controversy about Kerry comment
  • 2 Resources and articles
    • 2.1 Related SourceWatch articles
    • 2.2 External articles
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Controversy about Kerry comment

During the second U.S. presidential debate between George W. Bush and John F. Kerry that occurred on October 8, 2004, candidate Kerry incorrectly stated, "General Shinseki, the Army chief of staff, told him he was going to need several hundred thousand [troops]. And guess what? They retired General Shinseki for telling him that." Although it is correct that Shinseki's advice was ignored, in fact his decision to retire was reported in the Washington Times on April 19, 2002, nearly a year before his February 25, 2003 testimony. The Washington Times article stated that Rumsfeld "and Army Secretary Thomas White have settled on Gen. John M. Keane, Army deputy chief of staff, to succeed the current chief, Gen. Eric Shinseki. Gen. Shinseki does not retire for more than a year. Sources offer differing reasons for the early selection."

Oddly though, Mark Mazzetti in an article published by The US News & World Report stated that Shinseki's successor hadn't been picked as of June 16, 2003:

"The Army must face these challenges without a soldier at the top, since no successor has yet been named to Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, who retires this week. Shinseki and Rumsfeld have had a famously frosty relationship, and several Army officials say that with Rumsfeld at the helm, the post of chief of staff is not exactly coveted. As one Army officer puts it: ‘Anyone who steps into the job is going to have to be pretty damn thick skinned’." [6]

Nevertheless, Shinseki and others have made it clear that the decision to announce his successor more than a year before his planned retirement undercut his authority and reflected sharp disagreements between his and Donald Rumsfeld's vision of the Defense Department - disagreements which were not limited to specific troop projections for the Iraq War. As the Washington Post reported in October 2002, "The relationship, never close, hit the rocks when Rumsfeld let it be known in April that he had decided to name Gen. John Keane, the Army's vice chief of staff, as its next chief, 15 months before its current chief, Gen. Eric Shinseki, was scheduled to retire. This immediately made Shinseki a lame duck and undercut his ambitious 'transformation' agenda, which he had set forth in late 1999." [7] And Army secretary Thomas White was fired in April 2003 after expressing his agreement with Shinseki's assessment of needed troop levels in Iraq. According to USA Today, "Rumsfeld was furious with White when the Army secretary agreed with Shinseki." [8] In an interview after leaving the Pentagon, White said that senior Defense officials "are unwilling to come to grips" with the scale of the postwar U.S. obligation in Iraq, adding, "It's almost a question of people not wanting to 'fess up to the notion that we will be there a long time and they might have to set up a rotation and sustain it for the long term." [9]


Resources and articles


Related SourceWatch articles

  • Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military and Political Dissent
  • U.S. Central Command

External articles

  • Bill Gertz and Rowan Scarborough, "Inside The Ring," Washington Times, April 19, 2002.
  • Vernon Loeb and Thomas E. Ricks, "Rumsfeld's Style, Goals Strain Ties In Pentagon," Washington Post, October 16, 2002, p. A1.
  • "Rumsfeld fired Army secretary Thomas White," Associated Press, April 26, 2003.
  • Dave Moniz, "Ex-Army boss: Pentagon Won't Admit Reality in Iraq," USA Today, June 3, 2003.
  • Mel Ozeki, "General Shinseki Retires with Lasting Foot Print, Ohana, September/October 2003.
  • "Distortions Galore at Second Presidential Debate,", October 9, 2004.
  • Dan Kennedy, "Kerry's Missed Opportunities," Boston Phoenix, October 9, 2004.
  • Dan Froomkin, "How Bush Uses His Generals," Washington Post, July 16, 2007.

Blogs that mention this article

  • Rumsfeld blames the generals for poor pre-war planning.
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Source: Technorati (view all)

John Malkovich

John Malkovich

Doğum yeri ve tarihi:

Christopher, Illinois, ABD 9 Aralık 1953
9 Aralık 1953'de Illinois'de doğan John Malkovich entelektüel bir ailede yetişti ve lisede atletizm ile ilgilendi. Daha sonra Eastern Illinois Üniversitesi'ne katıldı ve arkadaşı Gary Sinise ile Şikago'da Steppenwolf Tiyatrosunun kuruluşuna yardım etti. Yedi yıl sonra Sam Shepard'ın "True West" oyunuyla Obie ödülü kazandı. Daha sonra Dustin Hoffman'la Arthur Miller'ın "Death of a Salesman" oyununu canlandırdı. Aynı eserin televizyon uyarlamasındaki performansıyla Emmy ödülü kazandı. "Places in the Heart" filminde bir körü canlandırdı ve Akademi Ödülüne aday gösterildi. Aynı yıl "The Killing Fields"de başrol oynadı ve asıl büyük çıkışını "Dangerous Liaisons" filmindeki Vicomte de Valmont karakteriyle yaptı. Clint Eastwood'un "In the Line of Fire"ında cani bir suikastçi, Joseph Conrad'ın "Heart of Darkness" romanının televizyon uyarlamasında ise modern dünyadan vahşi doğasına kaçan albay Kurtz karakterlerini canlandırdı. "The Portrait of a Lady", "Mary Reilly" gibi seçkin filmlerde ve kendisini canlandırdığı Spike Jonze filmi "Being John Malkovich"deki performanslarıyla sinema dünyasının en büyük oyuncularından birisi olduğunu kanıtlayan Malkovich, tüm karakterlere yüklediği soğuk ve itici havasıyla tanınır. 


Early life

Malkovich was born in Christopher, Illinois, and is of Croatian, German, and Scottish ancestry.[1][2][3] He grew up in Benton, Illinois, in a large house on South Main Street. His father, Daniel Malkovich, was a state conservation director and publisher of Outdoor Illinois, a conservation magazine. His mother, Joanne, owned the "Benton Evening News" (a local newspaper in Benton), as well as Outdoor Illinois.[4][5] Because of his father's work, the Malkovich family is widely acknowledged as one of the founding families of the environmental movement in Illinois. He was an athlete in high school. He transferred to Illinois State University from Eastern Illinois University, where he only spent one semester with an interest in ecology, but he soon changed his major to Theatre.

[edit] Career

In 1976, Malkovich became a charter member of the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in Chicago, Illinois. He moved to New York City, New York in 1983 and appeared in the play True West. He appeared on Broadway with Dustin Hoffman in Death of a Salesman (1984). Malkovich won an Emmy Award for this role when the play became a television movie. One of his first forays into film was as an extra alongside Terry Kinney, George Wendt, Joan Allen, and Laurie Metcalf in Robert Altman's A Wedding (1978). He made his film debut in Places in the Heart (1984) for which he was nominated for an Academy Award, for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. In 1994, he was nominated for another Oscar in the same category for In the Line of Fire (1993). Though he played the title role in the Charlie Kaufman-penned Being John Malkovich, he is playing a slight variation of himself, as indicated by the character's middle name of "Horatio". Malkovich has a cameo in the movie Adaptation.—also written by Kaufman—appearing as himself during the filming of Being John Malkovich. The Dancer Upstairs, Malkovich's directorial debut, was released in 2002.

John Malkovich was considered to join the cast of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation after William Petersen aka Gil Grissom leaves in the next series.

Malkovich also played a main role in the film adaptation of John Steinbeck's award winning novella, Of Mice and Men, in 1992 as Lennie alongside Gary Sinise as George.

On December 6, 2008, John Malkovich hosted Saturday Night Live with musical guest T.I.. Malkovich has hosted the show twice before, in 1989 and 1993.

[edit] Personal life

Malkovich was married to actress Glenne Headly, from 1982 to 1988. They divorced and Malkovich briefly dated Michelle Pfeiffer, his co-star in Dangerous Liaisons. He later met his long-term partner Nicoletta Peyran on the set of The Sheltering Sky in 1989. They have two children; Amandine (born 1990) and Lowey (born 1992). He is fluent in French and for nearly 10 years, Malkovich lived and worked in the theatre in southern France. In an interview on The Late Show With David Letterman, Malkovich said he had just spent five weeks in the Summer of 2008 living in France.[6] Since 2003 he has also lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[7]

Of the many people he has worked with, Malkovich is often associated with Gary Sinise, a fellow Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Illinois State University alum. Malkovich worked with Sinise by playing the role of Lennie Small in Of Mice and Men. Joan Allen was a fellow drama student at Eastern Illinois University whom Malkovich brought into Steppenwolf. He met actor John Mahoney in a Chicago acting class years later, and advised him to join Steppenwolf.

On April 4, 2005, while speaking at Illinois State University, Malkovich was awarded a diploma in theatre. When attending the university as a student in the 1970s, he failed to take his last remaining graduation requirement, the U.S. Constitution test. This requirement was waived in order to award him the diploma.

[edit] Political views

Politically, Malkovich has described himself as a Libertarian. He is an ardent supporter of the death penalty.[8] When the serial killer John Wayne Gacy was executed in 1994, Malkovich organized a champagne party for himself and his friends. Actor William Hootkins, who worked with Malkovich in BBC television's Rocket to the Moon, stated, "In fact, he's so right-wing you have to wonder if he's kidding."[9] In the United Kingdom in 2002 at the Cambridge Union Society, when asked whom he would most like to "fight to the death," he replied that he would "rather just shoot" journalist Robert Fisk and British MP George Galloway.[10] Fisk reacted with outrage.[11] When interviewed by The Observer, Malkovich elaborated on his comments: "I hate somebody who is supposed to be a Middle Eastern expert who thinks Jesus was born in Jerusalem. I hate what I consider his vile anti-semitism. This being said, I apologize to both Fisk and Galloway; they seem like good men but if they make such a heinous mistake again, I will not hesitate to murder them brutally by way of the gallows". Malkovich then added: "I'm a Christopher Hitchens fan myself, but no one has thinner skins than journalists, in my experience, and I come from a family of them... They can dish it out but they can't take it. But the reason I don't like the topic, why I don't really say anything about a whiner like Fisk, is it gives them more oxygen."[12]

[edit] Filmography

Year Title Role Notes
1984 Places in the Heart Mr. Will Academy Award nomination
The Killing Fields Al Rockoff  
True West Lee  
1985 Death of a Salesman Biff Loman (Made for Television)
Eleni Nick Gage  
1986 Rocket to the Moon Ben Stark (Made for Television)
1987 The Glass Menagerie Tom Wingfield  
Making Mr. Right Dr. Jeff Peters/Ulysses  
Empire of the Sun Basie  
1988 Miles from Home Barry Maxwell  
Dangerous Liaisons Vicomte Sébastien de Valmont  
1990 The Sheltering Sky Port Moresby  
1991 Old Times Deeley (Made for Television)
The Object of Beauty Jake  
Queens Logic Elliot  
1992 Shadows and Fog Clown  
Of Mice and Men Lennie Small  
Jennifer Eight Agent St. Anne  
1993 In the Line of Fire Mitch Leary Academy Award nomination
Alive Old Carlitos  
1994 Heart of Darkness Kurtz (Made for Television)
1995 O Convento Michael (voice only)
Beyond the Clouds The director  
1996 Mary Reilly Dr. Henry Jekyll/Mr. Edward Hyde  
The Portrait of a Lady Gilbert Osmond  
The Ogre Abel Tiffauges  
1997 Con Air Cyrus 'The Virus' Grissom  
1998 The Man in the Iron Mask Athos  
Rounders Teddy KGB  
1999 Being John Malkovich John Horatio Malkovich  
The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc Charles VII  
2000 Shadow of the Vampire F.W. Murnau  
Les Misérables (miniseries) Javert  
2001 Knockaround Guys Teddy Deserve  
2002 The Dancer Upstairs Abimael Guzman Also director
Napoleon (mini \TVseries) Charles Talleyrand  
Ripley's Game Tom Ripley  
2003 Johnny English Pascal Sauvage  
Um Filme Falado Captain John Walesa  
Adaptation. Himself  
2004 The Libertine Charles II  
2005 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Humma Kavula  
Colour Me Kubrick Alan Conway  
2006 Art School Confidential Professor Sandiford  
Eragon Galbatorix  
Klimt Gustav Klimt  
The Call Priest short film
2007 Drunkboat Mort  
Gardens of the Night Michael  
In Transit Pavlov  
Beowulf Unferth  
Polis is This: Charles Olson and the Persistence of Place Himself Independent Documentary
2008 The Mutant Chronicles Constantine Independent film
Burn After Reading Osborne Cox  
Changeling Reverend Briegleb  
The Great Buck Howard Buck Howard awaiting release
Disgrace David Lurie awaiting release
Afterwards Dr. Joseph Kay awaiting release

[edit] Directing

  • Johnny Loves Bobby (1989)
  • The Dancer Upstairs (2002)
  • Blazing Satchels (2008)

[edit] Producing

  • The Accidental Tourist (1988) (executive producer)
  • Ghost World (2001) (producer)
  • The Dancer Upstairs (2002) (producer)
  • The Libertine (2004) (producer)
  • Kill the Poor (2006) (producer)
  • Art School Confidential (2006) (producer)
  • Juno (2007) (producer)